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Sources and approaches to study of early Indian History. 

  1. Early pastoral and agricultural communities. 
  2. The Archaeological evidence.
  3. (Neolithic and Chalcaolithic Cluture) 

The Indus civilization: 

  1. its origin, nature and decline. 
  2. Patterns of settlement, 
  3. economy, social organization and religion in India (c. 2000 to 500 B.C.): archaeological perspectives. 

Evolutions of North Indian society and culture: evidence of Vedic Texts (Samhitas of Sutras). 

  1. Teachings of Mahavira and Buddha, Contemporary Society. 
  2. Early phase of state formation and urbanization. 

Rise of Magadha: the Mauryan Empire. 

  1. Ashoka's inscriptions, his dharma and nature of the Mauryan State. 

Post- Mauryan Period in Northern and Peninsular India. 

  1. Political and Administrative History. 
  2. Society, Economy, Culture and Religion. 

Tamilakam and its society and Sangam Texts. 

  1. Changes in the Gupta and post-Gupta period (upto c. 750) 
  2. political history of northern and peninsular India. 
  3. Samanta System and changes in political structure; 
  4. economy; Social Structure; culture; religion. 

Themes in early Indian cultural history, languages and  texts; 

  1. major stages in the evolution of art and architecture; 
  2. major philosophical thinkers and schools; 
  3. ideas in science and mathematics. 


13. Major dynasties and Political structures in North India from 750A.D. to 1200 A.D.

      Rise of Rajput Dynasties and the imperial Cholas. 

14. Arab Conquest of Sindh and the Ghaznavide Empire; 

  1.  Advent of Islam and Sufism 
  2.  Alberuni and his study of India Science and Civilisation. 

15. India 750 A.D. – 1200 A.D.:

  1. Economy, Society, Literature, Major Historical works, 
  2. Styles ofArchitecture, 
  3.  Religious thought and Institutions, 
  4. Growth of Bhakti Movement. 

16. The Ghorain invasions, 

  1.  Economic, Social and Cultural consequences and 
  2.  the foundation of the Sultanat. 

17. The Sultanat period and Political Dynasties: Slaves, Khaljis, Tughlaqs, Syeds and Lodis; 

      major historical sources including foreign travelers accounts; 

      Society and Culture during the Sultanat Period. 

18. Rise of Provincial Dynasties: 

  1. Bahmani and 
  2. Vijaynagar. 

19. The Mughal Period: 

  1. Babar, Humayun; Sur Period: Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb, 
  2. decline of the Mughal Empire; 
  3. Society, Culture, Administration, Economic changes;
  4. Arrival of Europeon Trading Companies. 

20. Shivaji, Peshwas and Rise of Marathas; 

  1. the Rise of Sikh Power, 
  2. third battle of Panipat. 

21. Sources of Mughal Period: 

  1. Persian and indigenous; 
  2. accounts of Foreign travelers. 

History Paper-II 


1. Establishment of British Rule in India: 

  1. East India Company and its relations with the Regional Powers. 
  2. Colonial Economy: 
  3. Tribute System, 
  4. Drain of wealth and  “Deindustrialization”. 

2.Fiscal and Land Revenue Settlements 

  1. Zamindari, 
  2. Ryotwari and 
  3. Mahalwari settlements. 

3.Administrative Policies and Structure of the British Raj upto 1857 (including constitutional developments) 

  1. Resistance to Colonial Rule: Early uprisings; 
  2. causes, 
  3. nature and impact of the Revolt of 1857, 
  4. Reorganization of the Raj in 1858 and after. 

4.Socio-cultural impact of colonial rule: 

  1. Official social reform measures; 
  2. Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy; 
  3. coming of English Education and the Press; 
  4. Christian Missionary activities; 
  5. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and other part of the country. 

5. Economic policies 1858-1914. 

  1. Railways 
  2. Commercialization of Indian Agriculture; 
  3. Growth of landless labourers and 
  4. rural indebtedness; 
  5. Famines; 
  6. India as market for British Industry and drain theory Early Indian nationalism; 
  7. Social background; 

Formation of  political associations; 

Peasant and tribal uprisings during the early nationalist era; 

Foundation of the Indian National Congress; 

The moderate phase of the Congress; 

  1. Growth of Extremism, 
  2. Anti-partitions; 
  3. and Swadeshi Movement, 
  4. Birth of Muslim League. 

The Indian Councils Act of 1909; 

the Government of India Act of 1919. 


  1. economy of India: 
  2. Industries and problem of protection; 
  3. Agricultural distress; 
  4. The Great Depression; 
  5. Ottawa agreements and discriminatory Protection. 
  6. The growth of Trade Unions; 
  7. Peasant movements. 

Home Rule Movement nationalism under Gandhi's leadership: 

Gandhi's thoughts, and methods of mass mobilization, and different movements; 

States people's Movement and other strands of the National Movement: 

(a) Revolutionary movements in India and Abroad; 

(b) Swarajists, Liberals, Responsive cooperation; 

(c) Emergence of Leftism in India 

(d) Subhash Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army. 

Growth of Communalism; Causes and Developments, 

Muslim League, 

Hindu Mahasabha etc.; 

Women and National Movement. 

Literary and cultural developments: 

  1. Tagore, Premchand, 
  2. Subramanayam Bharti, 
  3. Iqbal as examples only, 

11. Towards freedom: 

  1. The Act of 1935; 
  2. Congress Ministries, 
  3. 1937-1939, 
  4. The Pakistan movement, 
  5. Post-1945 upsurge (RIN Mutiny, Telangana uprising etc.): 
  6. Constitutional  negotiations and the Transfer of power; 
  7. Freedom and Partition. 


13. Renaissance, 

  1. Reformation and Counter Reformation, 
  2. Age of Enlightenment; 
  3. Major ideas of Enlightenment, Kant, Rousseau etc.; 
  4. Spread of Enlightenment outside Europe, 
  5. Rise of Socialist ideas. 

14. Origins of Modern Politics-

  1. European States System; 
  2. American Revolution; 
  3. French Revolution and its aftermath, 
  4. (1789-1815). 

15. Industrialization: 

  1. Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society: 
  2. Industrialization in other countries. 

16. Nation-State System-Rise of Nationalism in 19 Century: 

  1. Unification of Germany and th Italy: 
  2. Disintegration of Empires through the emergence of nationalities. 

17. Imperialism and Colonialism: 

  1. Trans-Atlantic slave Trade,
  2. Asian Conquest; 

Types of Empire: Settlement and non-settlement; 

  1. LatinAmerica, 
  2. SouthAfrica, 
  3. Indonesia,
  4. Australia. 

18. Revolutions and Counter-Revolutions- 

19 Century European revolutions; 

  1. The  Russian Revolution of 1917-1921; 
  2. Fascist Counter-Revolution, 
  3. Italy and Germany; 
  4. the Chinese Revolution of 1949. 

19. World Wars (First and Second)- Causes and consequences and various developments. 

20. Cold War- Emergence of two Blocs and other related developments. 

  1.      Emergence of Third World and Non-Alignment; 
  2.      UNO and Dispute Resolution. 

21. Colonies and Liberation- 

  1. Latin America- Bolivia; 
  2. Arab World- Egypt; 
  3. South Africa Apartheid Policy and Democracy; 
  4. South- EastAsia- Vietnam. 

22. Decolonization and underdevelopment –

  1. Break up of Colonial Empires; British, French, Dutch; 
  2. Factors Constraining Development: LatinAmerica,Africa,Asia. 

23. Soviet Disintegration and the Unipolar World- 

  1. Causes, Consequences and other developments; 
  2. Globalization.
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