10. GEOLOGY: PAPER-I General Geology, Geomorphology, Structural Geology, Palaeontology and Stratigraphy. (i) General Geology: Origin of the Universe Planets of the Solar System. Interior of the Earth. Dating of rocks by various methods and Age of the Earth, Volcanoes: their types, causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes: causes, effects and distribution. Island Arcs, Deep Sea trenches and Mid- Oceanic Ridges. Continental drift, Sea-floor spreading and Plate Tectonics. Origin of Continents and Oceans. (ii) Geomorphology: Weathering and Erosion Geomorphic processes, Geomorphic cycles. Topography and its relation to structures and Lithology. Drainage patterns and their significance. Geomorphic features of India. Aeolian, Fluvial, Glacial, Coastal and Karst processes and landforms. (iii) Structural Geology: Concept of Stress and strain, strain markers, Strain in 2- and 3- dimensions and their significance. Geometry and classification of Folds, Faults, joints. Types and significance of Unconformities, Linear and Planar structures, and their significance. Major Tectonic features of India. (iv) Palaeontology: Micro- and mega-fossils, Index fossils, Derived fossils and their significance, Modes of preservation of fossils. Morphology, evolutionary trends and Geological distribution of Bivalves, Gastropods, Ammonoids, Brachiopods, Trilobites, Echinoids and Corals. Vertebrate life through ages. Evolution of Horse and Elephant, Gondwana flora and their palaeontogical significance. (v) Stratigraphy: Principles of Stratigraphy, stratigraphic classification, Nomenclature, Geological Time scale. Study of geological systems of India in terms of Lithology, distribution, fossil contents and economic importance (Dharvar Supergroup, Cuddapah Supergroup, Vindhyan Supergroup, Gondwana Supergroup, Deccan Traps, Siwalik Supergroup).
GEOLOGY: PAPER-II Crystallography, Mineralogy, Petrology, Economic Geology and Applied Geology (i) Crystallography: Crystalline and Non-Crystalline Solids, Space Groups, Space Lattice, Classification of Crystais in 32 classes of symmetry, Miller, Weiss Notations and Harman Mauguin symbols, Axial character, Symmetry elements and forms present in the Normal class of Cubic, Tetragonal, Hexagonal, Orthorhombic, Monoclinic and Triclinic Systems, Twinning and Twin laws, Crystal defects, Applications of X-ray diffraction techniques in crystallography. (ii) Optical Mineralogy: General principles of optics, Isotropism and anisotropism, Properties of Minerals in Plane polarized light and between crossed polars, Concepts of optical indicatrix. Dispersion in minerals. (iii) Mineralogy: Elements of Crystal chemistry, Types of bondings, ionic radii, coordination number, isomorphism, polymorphism and pseudomorphism, Structural classification of silicates, Physical, chemical, and optical properties of rock- forming minerals (Olivien Pyroxene, Amphiboles, Feldspars, Feldspathoids, Silica, Garnets, Mica andAlumino- silicate group). (iv) Petrology : Magma its generation and physical properties one, two and three component phase diagrams (Silica, Albite-Anorthilte, Periclase- Silica, Diopside- AlbiteAnorthite systems) and their significance. Bowen's Reaction Principle, magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Texture, structure and classification of igneous rocks. Petrology of some igneous rocks (Granite, Basalts, Alkaline rocks, Ultramafic rocks, Anorthote and Chamockites) with Indian examples. Process of formation of sedimentary rocks, Diagenesis and lithification. Textures and structures of sedimentary rocks and their significance. Classification of sedimentary rocks (clastic and non-clastic). Heavy minarals and their significance, Elementary concepts of depositional environments, Sedimentry facies and provenance. Petrography of important sedimentary rocks (Conglomerate, Breccia, Sandstone Greywacke, shale, Limestone and B.H.Q.). Wentworht's Scale. Metamorphic processes and types of metamorphism. Metamorphic grades, zones and facies, ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams. Texture, structures and nomenclature of metamorphic rocks,Anatexis. Petrography and petrogenesis of important metamorphic rocks. Description of Zeolite, Greenschist,Amphibolite Granulite and Eclogite Facies Rocks. (v) Economic Geology: Ore Mineral, Gangue and Tenor. Processes of formation of mineral deposits. Common forms and structures of ore bodies, Classification of ore deposits. Control of ore localization. Metallogeny. Study of important metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits. Oil and natural gas deposits, and Coal fields of India, Mineral resources of Uttar Pradesh. Mineral economics. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of minerals. (vi) Applied Geology: Essentials of prospecting and Exploration techniques. Principal methods of Mining. Sampling, Mineral beneficiation. Geological considerations in Engineering works, Dams, Tunnels, Bridges and Roads. Elements of Soil and Groundwater Geology. Use of Aerial Photographs and Satellite imageries in geological investigations.