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PAPER-I

SECTION-A – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1. Geomophology: Origin and structure of the Earth, Earth movements, Plate tectonics and Mountain Building, Isostasy; Vulcansim; Weathering and Erosion; Cycle of Erosion, Evolution of landforms; fluvial, glacial, aeolion, marine and karst Rejuvenation and Polycyclic Land form features. 2. Climatology: Composition and structure of Atmoshphere, Insolation and Heat Budget Atmospheric pressure and winds; Moisture and Precipitation; Air masses and Fronts Cyclone: Origine, Movements and associated weather; Classification of world climates Koppen and Thomthwaite. 3. Oceanography: Configuration of Ocean floor, Salinity, Ocean Currents, Tides Ocean deposits and coral reefs. 4. Soil and Vegetation: Soils-geneisis; classification and world distribution, SoilVegetation Symbiosis; Biotic Communities and Succession. 5. Ecosystem: Concept of Ecosystem, structure and functioning of Ecosystem, Types of Ecosystem; Major Biomes; Man's impact on the Ecosystem and Global Ecological issues.

SECTION-B – HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 6. Evolution of Geographical Thought: Contributions of Indian, German, French, British and Soviet Geographers; Traditional Paradigms:- Determinism, Possiblism, Regionalishm and Contemporary Paradigms of Geography – positivism and quantitative revolution, models and systems in Geography, Recent trends in geographic thought with special reference to behavioural radical, humanism, post-modernism in Feminism and ecological paradigms. 7. Human Geography: Human habitat in major natural regions; Emergence of Man and Races of Mankind; Cultural evolution and stages; Major cultural realms, Growth and Distribution of population; International migration; Demorgraphic Transition and contemporary population problems. 8. Settlement Geography: Concept of Settlement Geography; Rural settlements – Nature; Origin, Types and patterns; Urban settlements: Origin, Patterns, Processes and consequences, Central place theory; Classification of towns; Hierarchy of Urban Centres, Morphology of Towns; Rural-Urban nexus, Umiand and urban finges; Futuristic trends. 9. Economic Geography: Fundamental concepts; Concepts of Resources: Classification, Conservation and Management; Nature and Types of Agriculture, Agricultural land use; Location theories; World Agricultural Regions; Major crops; Mineral and Power Resources; Occurrence, Reserve, Utilization and Production patterns; World Energy crisis and search for alternatives; Industries- Theories of Industrial location, Major industrial regions; Major Industries- Iron & Steel. Paper, Textiles. Petro- Chemicals, Automobiles, Ship building- their location patterns, International Trade, Trade Blocks, Trade routes; Ports and Global Trade Centres; Globalization and World Economic Development Patterns, Concepts and approaches to Sustainable Development. 10. Political Geography: Concept of Nation and State; Frontiers, Boundaries and Buffer zones; Concepts of Heartland and Rimland; Federalism, Contemporary world Geopolitical issues.

GEOGRAPHY: PAPER-II – GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

SECTION (A) PHYSICAL & HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 1. Physical Features: Geological systems and structure: Relief and drainage, soils and natural vegetation; soil degradation and deforestation, origin and mechanism of Indian Monsoon, climatic region, physiographic region. 2. Wild Life, National Park, Sanctuaries, biospheric reserves, biodiversity hot-spots. 3. Wetland, tourism- resource and economy, natural hazards, disasters and management, environmental issues. 4. Population and Settlements- Distribution and growth, structural characteristics of population, Rural Settlements- types, patterns and morphology, urban settlement- criteria and classification of urban Settlement, hierarchy and umland, Urbanisastion, Urban Policy, Urban Planning, role of Small Towns, Smart City and Smart Village. 5. Political organization: historical perspective on unity and diversity, states reorganization; regional consciousness and national integration, geographical basis of Centre-State relations, International Boundaries of India and related geo-political issues, India and the geopolitics of Indian ocean, India and the SAARC. SECTION (B) ECONOMIC & REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY 6. Agriculture: Salient Features of Indian Agriculture, problem of wastelands and their reclamation, cropping patterns and intensity, agricultural efficiency and productivity, impact of green revolution, agricultural regions, agro-ecological regions, land holding patterns, land reforms, crop combination regions, modernization of agriculture and agricultural planning. 7. Resources: Distributional patterns, reserves and production trends, complementarity of minerals, energy resources- coal, petroleum, hydro-power, mulitipurpose river valley projects, energy crisis and search for alternatives, marine resources and biotic resources. 8. Industries: Industrial development, major Industries- Iron & Steel, Textiles, Paper, Cement, Fertilizers, Sugar and Petro-Chemicals, Industrial Complexes and regions, industrial policy. 9. Transport and Trade: Railways and Roads networks, problems and prospects of Civil Aviation and Water Transport; Inter-Regional Trade International trade, Major Ports and Trade Centres. 10. Regional Development and Planning: Problems of regional development and planning strategies, multi- level planning, planning regions, planning for Metropolitan, Tribal, Hilly, Drought-prone Regions, Watershed Management, Regional disparities in development, Five Year Plans and planning for sustainable development.
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