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ZOOLOGY PAPER-I 

(Non Chordata, Chordata, Ecology, Ethology, Biostatistics and Economic Zoology) 

Section-A

Non-chordata and chordata 

1. Animal Divercity: General survey, Classification and Interrelationships of following Phyla. 

2. Protozoa: Locomotion, Nutrition and Reproduction, Human parasitic protozoa and diseases. 

3. Porifera: Canal system; Skeleton and Reproduction. 

4. Cnidaria:Polymorphism; Coral reefs; Metagenesis. 

5. Platyhelminthes:Parasitic adaptations and host-parasite relationships. 

6.Annelida:Adaptive radiation in Polychaeta. 

7.Arthopoda: Larval forms and parasitism in crustacean;Appendages of prawn; Vision and respiration in Arthopoda; Social life and metamorphosis in insects. 

8. Mollusca: Respiration, Pearl formation. 

9. Echinodermata: General organization, larval forms and affinities. 

10. Chordata: Origin; Origin of tetrapods. 

11. Pisces: Respiration; Migration; Lung fishes. 

12.Amphibia: Neoteny and paedogenesis; parental care. 

13. Reptilia: Skull type; Dinosaurs 

14.Aves: Aerial adaptations, Migration, Respiration, Flightless birds. 

15. Mammalia: Dentition; Prototheria and Metatheria; Skin derivatives of Eutheria. 

SECTION-B

   Ecology, Ethology, Biostatistics and Economic Zoology 

1. Ecology: 

  1. Abiotic and biotic factors; 
  2. interspecific and intraspecific relations, Ecological succession; 
  3. Different types of biomes; 
  4. Biogeochemical cycles; 
  5. Food web; Ozone layer and Biosphere; 
  6. Pollution of air, water and land. 

2. Ethology: 

  1. Types of animal behaviour; 
  2. Role of hormones and pheromones in behaviour; 
  3. Methods of studyingAnimal behaviour; 
  4. Biological Rhythms. 

3. Biostatistics: 

  1. Sampling methods; 
  2. frequency distribution and measures of central tendency; 
  3. standard deviation and standard error; 
  4. correlation and regression; 
  5. chi- square and t-tests. 

4. Economic Zoology: 

  1. Insect pests of crops (Paddy, Gram and Sugarcane) and stored grains;
  2. Apiculture, 
  3. Sericulture, 
  4. Lac culture; 
  5. Pisciculture and 
  6. Oyster culture. 

 PAPER-II 

(Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Systematics, Biochemistry, Physiology and Developmental Biology) 

SECTION-A: 

Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Systematics 

1. Cell Biology: 

  1. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, 
  2. Electron microscopic structure of eukaryotic cells; 
  3. Cell membrane- structure, functions and transport mechanisms 
  4. cell organelles- structure and function; 
  5. Cytoskeleton; Cell cycle; 
  6. Cell division-Mitosis and Meiosis; 
  7. Spindle formation and chromosome movement. 

2. Genetics: 

  1. Mendelian laws of inheritance; 
  2. Structure of eukaryotic chromosome; 
  3. giant and lamp- brush chromosomes; 
  4. Linkage; concept of gene, gene mapping; 
  5. Sex chromosomes and sex determination; 
  6. Sex linked traits; Gene interactions (codominance, multiple alleles, Lethal genes, Epistatic and Hypostatic genes, Polygenic inheritance); 
  7. Variation-its types and sources; chromosomal and gene mutations; 
  8. Human genetic diseases (Sickle cell anaemia, Down's, Turner's and Klenefelter's syndromes); 
  9. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; 
  10. Recombinant DNA technology-basic principles, tools, vectors and applications; 
  11. Transgenic animals. 

3. Evolution: 

  1. Origin of life- Theories and experimental evidence; 
  2. Evolution- theories; 
  3. Natural selection; 
  4. Variation; 
  5. Calculating allele frequencies (HardyWeinberg Method); 
  6. Concept of species and sub-species; 
  7. Mechanisms of speciation, 
  8. Island species; 
  9. Crypsis- Overview and varieties of crypsis. 

4. Systematics: 

  1. Principles of Taxonomy; 
  2. Zoological nomenclature; 
  3. Fossils; 
  4. Geological eras; 
  5. Phylogeny of horse and elephant; 
  6. Origin and evolution of man; 
  7. Continental distribution of animals; 
  8. Zoogeographical realms of the world and their characteristic fauna.

SECTION-B- 

Biochemistry, Physiology and Development Biology 

Biochemistry: 

  1. Structure, 
  2. classification and 
  3. biological functions of Carbohydrates, 
  4. Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic acids, 
  5. Watson and Crick model of DNA; 
  6. Genetic code; 
  7. Protein- biosynthesis; 
  8. Biological oxidations; 
  9. High energy compounds; 
  10. Electron transport chain; 
  11. Oxidative phosphorylation; 
  12. Glycolysis and Krebs/TCA cycle; 
  13. Enzymes Nomenclature, 
  14. classification, 
  15. Factors affecting enzyme activity and mechanism of action, 
  16. Vitamins- dietary sources, 
  17. biochemical functions, 
  18. deficiency symptoms, 
  19. Hypervitaminosis A; 
  20. Innate and Aquired immunity; 
  21. immune cells; 
  22. Immunoglobulins; 
  23. cytokines (Interleukins). 

2. Physiology (with special reference to mammals): 

  1. Homeostasis; 
  2. open and closed circulatory system, 
  3. Neurogenic and Myogenic hearts; 
  4. Blood composition, functions clotting and blood-groups; 
  5. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; 
  6. The cardiac cycle; 
  7. Neural and Hormonal regulation of heart rate; 
  8. Mechanism of breathing and its regulation, 
  9. formation of urine; 
  10. Homeostatic functions of kidney; 
  11. Thermoregulation in thermoconformer and thermoregulator animals; 
  12. Nerve impulseaxonal and synaptic transmission; 
  13. neurotransmitters; 
  14. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, protein, fats and nucleic acid, control of secretion of digestive juices; 
  15. Muscle-types, structure and mechanism of contraction; 
  16. structure and functions of human eye and ear; 
  17. the mechanism of photoreception, 
  18. hearing and balance; 
  19. Hormones-Endocrine, 
  20. Paracrine and Autocrine; 
  21. Types of hormone; 
  22. Mechanisms of hormone action; 
  23. Types of hormone receptors; 
  24. Roles of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, gonad and pineal hormones; 
  25. Regulation of Menstrual cycle; 
  26. Menarche and Menopause. 

3. Development Biology: 

  1. Gametogenesis, 
  2. fertilization, cleavage and gastrulation in Branchiostoma, frog and chick;
  3.  Types of eggs; 
  4. Fate maps of gastrula of frog and chick;
  5.  Metamorphosis in frog and insects and its hormonal control; 
  6. Formation of extra embryonic membrance in chicks; 
  7. Types of placenta in mammals, Organiser phenomenon, Organogenesis of brain, eye and heart; Regeneration; 
  8. Genetic control of development. 
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