(Non Chordata, Chordata, Ecology, Ethology, Biostatistics and Economic Zoology)
Non-chordata and chordata
1. Animal Divercity: General survey, Classification and Interrelationships of following Phyla.
2. Protozoa: Locomotion, Nutrition and Reproduction, Human parasitic protozoa and diseases.
3. Porifera: Canal system; Skeleton and Reproduction.
4. Cnidaria:Polymorphism; Coral reefs; Metagenesis.
5. Platyhelminthes:Parasitic adaptations and host-parasite relationships.
6.Annelida:Adaptive radiation in Polychaeta.
7.Arthopoda: Larval forms and parasitism in crustacean;Appendages of prawn; Vision and respiration in Arthopoda; Social life and metamorphosis in insects.
8. Mollusca: Respiration, Pearl formation.
9. Echinodermata: General organization, larval forms and affinities.
10. Chordata: Origin; Origin of tetrapods.
11. Pisces: Respiration; Migration; Lung fishes.
12.Amphibia: Neoteny and paedogenesis; parental care.
13. Reptilia: Skull type; Dinosaurs
14.Aves: Aerial adaptations, Migration, Respiration, Flightless birds.
15. Mammalia: Dentition; Prototheria and Metatheria; Skin derivatives of Eutheria.
Ecology, Ethology, Biostatistics and Economic Zoology
- Abiotic and biotic factors;
- interspecific and intraspecific relations, Ecological succession;
- Different types of biomes;
- Biogeochemical cycles;
- Food web; Ozone layer and Biosphere;
- Pollution of air, water and land.
- Types of animal behaviour;
- Role of hormones and pheromones in behaviour;
- Methods of studyingAnimal behaviour;
- Biological Rhythms.
- Sampling methods;
- frequency distribution and measures of central tendency;
- standard deviation and standard error;
- correlation and regression;
- chi- square and t-tests.
4. Economic Zoology:
- Insect pests of crops (Paddy, Gram and Sugarcane) and stored grains;
- Lac culture;
- Pisciculture and
- Oyster culture.
(Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Systematics, Biochemistry, Physiology and Developmental Biology)
Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Systematics
1. Cell Biology:
- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells,
- Electron microscopic structure of eukaryotic cells;
- Cell membrane- structure, functions and transport mechanisms
- cell organelles- structure and function;
- Cytoskeleton; Cell cycle;
- Cell division-Mitosis and Meiosis;
- Spindle formation and chromosome movement.
- Mendelian laws of inheritance;
- Structure of eukaryotic chromosome;
- giant and lamp- brush chromosomes;
- Linkage; concept of gene, gene mapping;
- Sex chromosomes and sex determination;
- Sex linked traits; Gene interactions (codominance, multiple alleles, Lethal genes, Epistatic and Hypostatic genes, Polygenic inheritance);
- Variation-its types and sources; chromosomal and gene mutations;
- Human genetic diseases (Sickle cell anaemia, Down's, Turner's and Klenefelter's syndromes);
- Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes;
- Recombinant DNA technology-basic principles, tools, vectors and applications;
- Transgenic animals.
- Origin of life- Theories and experimental evidence;
- Evolution- theories;
- Natural selection;
- Calculating allele frequencies (HardyWeinberg Method);
- Concept of species and sub-species;
- Mechanisms of speciation,
- Island species;
- Crypsis- Overview and varieties of crypsis.
- Principles of Taxonomy;
- Zoological nomenclature;
- Geological eras;
- Phylogeny of horse and elephant;
- Origin and evolution of man;
- Continental distribution of animals;
- Zoogeographical realms of the world and their characteristic fauna.
Biochemistry, Physiology and Development Biology
- classification and
- biological functions of Carbohydrates,
- Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic acids,
- Watson and Crick model of DNA;
- Genetic code;
- Protein- biosynthesis;
- Biological oxidations;
- High energy compounds;
- Electron transport chain;
- Oxidative phosphorylation;
- Glycolysis and Krebs/TCA cycle;
- Enzymes Nomenclature,
- Factors affecting enzyme activity and mechanism of action,
- Vitamins- dietary sources,
- biochemical functions,
- deficiency symptoms,
- Hypervitaminosis A;
- Innate and Aquired immunity;
- immune cells;
- cytokines (Interleukins).
2. Physiology (with special reference to mammals):
- open and closed circulatory system,
- Neurogenic and Myogenic hearts;
- Blood composition, functions clotting and blood-groups;
- Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport;
- The cardiac cycle;
- Neural and Hormonal regulation of heart rate;
- Mechanism of breathing and its regulation,
- formation of urine;
- Homeostatic functions of kidney;
- Thermoregulation in thermoconformer and thermoregulator animals;
- Nerve impulseaxonal and synaptic transmission;
- Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, protein, fats and nucleic acid, control of secretion of digestive juices;
- Muscle-types, structure and mechanism of contraction;
- structure and functions of human eye and ear;
- the mechanism of photoreception,
- hearing and balance;
- Paracrine and Autocrine;
- Types of hormone;
- Mechanisms of hormone action;
- Types of hormone receptors;
- Roles of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, gonad and pineal hormones;
- Regulation of Menstrual cycle;
- Menarche and Menopause.
3. Development Biology:
- fertilization, cleavage and gastrulation in Branchiostoma, frog and chick;
- Types of eggs;
- Fate maps of gastrula of frog and chick;
- Metamorphosis in frog and insects and its hormonal control;
- Formation of extra embryonic membrance in chicks;
- Types of placenta in mammals, Organiser phenomenon, Organogenesis of brain, eye and heart; Regeneration;
- Genetic control of development.