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(Non Chordata, Chordata, Ecology, Ethology, Biostatistics and Economic Zoology) 


Non-chordata and chordata 

1. Animal Divercity: General survey, Classification and Interrelationships of following Phyla. 

2. Protozoa: Locomotion, Nutrition and Reproduction, Human parasitic protozoa and diseases. 

3. Porifera: Canal system; Skeleton and Reproduction. 

4. Cnidaria:Polymorphism; Coral reefs; Metagenesis. 

5. Platyhelminthes:Parasitic adaptations and host-parasite relationships. 

6.Annelida:Adaptive radiation in Polychaeta. 

7.Arthopoda: Larval forms and parasitism in crustacean;Appendages of prawn; Vision and respiration in Arthopoda; Social life and metamorphosis in insects. 

8. Mollusca: Respiration, Pearl formation. 

9. Echinodermata: General organization, larval forms and affinities. 

10. Chordata: Origin; Origin of tetrapods. 

11. Pisces: Respiration; Migration; Lung fishes. 

12.Amphibia: Neoteny and paedogenesis; parental care. 

13. Reptilia: Skull type; Dinosaurs 

14.Aves: Aerial adaptations, Migration, Respiration, Flightless birds. 

15. Mammalia: Dentition; Prototheria and Metatheria; Skin derivatives of Eutheria. 


   Ecology, Ethology, Biostatistics and Economic Zoology 

1. Ecology: 

  1. Abiotic and biotic factors; 
  2. interspecific and intraspecific relations, Ecological succession; 
  3. Different types of biomes; 
  4. Biogeochemical cycles; 
  5. Food web; Ozone layer and Biosphere; 
  6. Pollution of air, water and land. 

2. Ethology: 

  1. Types of animal behaviour; 
  2. Role of hormones and pheromones in behaviour; 
  3. Methods of studyingAnimal behaviour; 
  4. Biological Rhythms. 

3. Biostatistics: 

  1. Sampling methods; 
  2. frequency distribution and measures of central tendency; 
  3. standard deviation and standard error; 
  4. correlation and regression; 
  5. chi- square and t-tests. 

4. Economic Zoology: 

  1. Insect pests of crops (Paddy, Gram and Sugarcane) and stored grains;
  2. Apiculture, 
  3. Sericulture, 
  4. Lac culture; 
  5. Pisciculture and 
  6. Oyster culture. 


(Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Systematics, Biochemistry, Physiology and Developmental Biology) 


Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Systematics 

1. Cell Biology: 

  1. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells, 
  2. Electron microscopic structure of eukaryotic cells; 
  3. Cell membrane- structure, functions and transport mechanisms 
  4. cell organelles- structure and function; 
  5. Cytoskeleton; Cell cycle; 
  6. Cell division-Mitosis and Meiosis; 
  7. Spindle formation and chromosome movement. 

2. Genetics: 

  1. Mendelian laws of inheritance; 
  2. Structure of eukaryotic chromosome; 
  3. giant and lamp- brush chromosomes; 
  4. Linkage; concept of gene, gene mapping; 
  5. Sex chromosomes and sex determination; 
  6. Sex linked traits; Gene interactions (codominance, multiple alleles, Lethal genes, Epistatic and Hypostatic genes, Polygenic inheritance); 
  7. Variation-its types and sources; chromosomal and gene mutations; 
  8. Human genetic diseases (Sickle cell anaemia, Down's, Turner's and Klenefelter's syndromes); 
  9. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; 
  10. Recombinant DNA technology-basic principles, tools, vectors and applications; 
  11. Transgenic animals. 

3. Evolution: 

  1. Origin of life- Theories and experimental evidence; 
  2. Evolution- theories; 
  3. Natural selection; 
  4. Variation; 
  5. Calculating allele frequencies (HardyWeinberg Method); 
  6. Concept of species and sub-species; 
  7. Mechanisms of speciation, 
  8. Island species; 
  9. Crypsis- Overview and varieties of crypsis. 

4. Systematics: 

  1. Principles of Taxonomy; 
  2. Zoological nomenclature; 
  3. Fossils; 
  4. Geological eras; 
  5. Phylogeny of horse and elephant; 
  6. Origin and evolution of man; 
  7. Continental distribution of animals; 
  8. Zoogeographical realms of the world and their characteristic fauna.


Biochemistry, Physiology and Development Biology 


  1. Structure, 
  2. classification and 
  3. biological functions of Carbohydrates, 
  4. Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic acids, 
  5. Watson and Crick model of DNA; 
  6. Genetic code; 
  7. Protein- biosynthesis; 
  8. Biological oxidations; 
  9. High energy compounds; 
  10. Electron transport chain; 
  11. Oxidative phosphorylation; 
  12. Glycolysis and Krebs/TCA cycle; 
  13. Enzymes Nomenclature, 
  14. classification, 
  15. Factors affecting enzyme activity and mechanism of action, 
  16. Vitamins- dietary sources, 
  17. biochemical functions, 
  18. deficiency symptoms, 
  19. Hypervitaminosis A; 
  20. Innate and Aquired immunity; 
  21. immune cells; 
  22. Immunoglobulins; 
  23. cytokines (Interleukins). 

2. Physiology (with special reference to mammals): 

  1. Homeostasis; 
  2. open and closed circulatory system, 
  3. Neurogenic and Myogenic hearts; 
  4. Blood composition, functions clotting and blood-groups; 
  5. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; 
  6. The cardiac cycle; 
  7. Neural and Hormonal regulation of heart rate; 
  8. Mechanism of breathing and its regulation, 
  9. formation of urine; 
  10. Homeostatic functions of kidney; 
  11. Thermoregulation in thermoconformer and thermoregulator animals; 
  12. Nerve impulseaxonal and synaptic transmission; 
  13. neurotransmitters; 
  14. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, protein, fats and nucleic acid, control of secretion of digestive juices; 
  15. Muscle-types, structure and mechanism of contraction; 
  16. structure and functions of human eye and ear; 
  17. the mechanism of photoreception, 
  18. hearing and balance; 
  19. Hormones-Endocrine, 
  20. Paracrine and Autocrine; 
  21. Types of hormone; 
  22. Mechanisms of hormone action; 
  23. Types of hormone receptors; 
  24. Roles of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, gonad and pineal hormones; 
  25. Regulation of Menstrual cycle; 
  26. Menarche and Menopause. 

3. Development Biology: 

  1. Gametogenesis, 
  2. fertilization, cleavage and gastrulation in Branchiostoma, frog and chick;
  3.  Types of eggs; 
  4. Fate maps of gastrula of frog and chick;
  5.  Metamorphosis in frog and insects and its hormonal control; 
  6. Formation of extra embryonic membrance in chicks; 
  7. Types of placenta in mammals, Organiser phenomenon, Organogenesis of brain, eye and heart; Regeneration; 
  8. Genetic control of development. 
asked in Upper PCS 7.6k points 8 30 58
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